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1696 Heritage Group, “George T. Downing,” in “Gilded Age Newport in Color,”

Adams, Edward Stowe. Anti-Slavery Days in Fall River and the Operation of the Underground Railroad. (Fall River: Fall River Historical Society Press, 2017)

Alonso, Harriet Hyman. Growing Up Abolitionist: The Story of the Garrison Children (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002)

Battle, Charles A. Negroes on the Island of Rhode Island (Newport, R.I.: Newport’s Black Museum, 1932)

Bartlett, Irving H. Bartlett. From Slave to Citizen: The Story of the Negro in Rhode Island (Urban League of R.I., 1972)

Baumgartner, Kabria. In Pursuit of Knowledge: Black Women and Educational Activism in Antebellum America (New York: New York University Press, 2019), chapter 1

Best, Mary Agnes. The Town that Saved A State/Westerly (Westerly: The Utter Company, 1943), 230-231

Black Meet the Founder of One of the First 5-Story, Black-Owned Luxury Hotels. 2019. Accessed June 4, 2021

Blassingame, John W. Blassingame. Slave Testimony: Two Centuries of Letters, Speeches, Interviews and Autobiographies (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1977).  The “James Curry Narrative” is on pp. 128-144

Blockson, Charles L. Blockson. The Underground Railroad (New York: Prentice Hall, 1987)

Bordewich, Fergus M. Bound for Canaan: The Underground Railroad and the War for the Soul of America. (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 2005)

“Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936-1938.”

Brown University. “East Side Underground Railroad site to be commemorated Oct. 28,”, accessed March 20, 2021

Buffum Chace, Elizabeth. Anti-Slavery Reminiscences. (Central Falls: E.L. Freeman & Son, 1891)

Buffum Chace, Elizabeth. “Narrative of James Curry, A Fugitive Slave.” The Liberator, January 10, 1840

Buffum Chace, Elizabeth and Lucy Buffum Lovell. Two Quaker Sisters. New York: Liveright, 1937

Buffum Chace Wyman, Lillie. “From Generation to Generation,” Atlantic. August 1889,164-177.

Buffum Chace Wyman, Lillie, and Arthur Wyman. Elizabeth Buffum Chace: Her Life and Its Environment. 2 volumes. (Boston: W.B. Clarke Co., 1914)

Butler, Erin Bartels Butler. “Summary of the Narrative of James Curry,”

Curry, James. “Narrative of James Curry, A Fugitive Slave,” (with Elizabeth Buffum Chace) Liberator, January 10, 1840

Davis, William F. Saint Indefatigable: A Sketch of the Life of Amarancy Paine Sarle (Boston: D. Lothrop & Co., 1883)

DeSimone, Russell J. “Narrative of an Ashaway Teenager’s Role in the Underground Railroad Rediscovered.” Small State, Big History. Accessed June 4, 2021

Douglass, Frederick. The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, Published 1893. (Reprint, Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications Inc., 2003)

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass An American Slave Written by Himself. Published 1845. (Reprint, New York: Signet, 1968)

Foner, Eric. Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad.( New York: W.W. Norton, 2015)

Franklin, John Hope, and Loren Schweninger, Runaway Slaves: Rebels on the Plantation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999)

Gomez O’Toole, Marjory. If Jane Should Want to Be Sold, Stories of Enslavement, Indenture and Freedom in Little Compton (Little Compton Historical Society, 2016)

Grover, Kathryn. The Fugitive’s Gibraltar: Escaping Slaves and Abolitionism in New Bedford, Massachusetts. (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001)

Jacobs, Harriet A. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl Written by Herself. Published 1861.

Reprint, Jean Fagan Yellin. ed., (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987)

Jones, Augustine. “Moses Brown: His Life and Service”: A Sketch Read Before the Rhode Island Historical Society, October 18, 1892

La Neve De Francesco, Joey. “Abolition and Anti-Abolition in Newport, 1835-1866,” Newport History 92 (Winter/Spring 2020): 1-37

Lovell, Malcolm R., ed. Two Quaker Sisters, Elizabeth Buffum Chace and Lucy Buffum Lovell.

(New York: Liveright Publishing Co., 1937)

McBurney, Christian. “Prudence Crandall, Sarah Harris Fayerweather and Ann Hammond: Their Pre-Civil War Struggle for Equality for Black People.” Small State, Big History. Accessed June 4, 2021

McWilliams, Marco. “Underground Railroad: An alternate view of the abolitionist movement.” February 5, 2020,

Nathans, Sydney. To Free A Family: The Journey of Mary Walker (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2012)

“North American Slave Narratives,” introduction by William L. Andrews,

North Carolina Runaway Slave Advertisements, 1750-1865.

“Old Pidge House Revealed as Fugitive Slave Hideout,” Pawtucket Times, December 3, 1934, second section

Polites, Taylor M. “1812 – 1864: Reverend Edward Scott.” Rhode Tour. Accessed April 14, 2021

Pope Melish, Joanne. Disowning Slavery: Gradual Emancipation and “Race” in New England, 1780-1860 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998)

“Reminiscences of the ‘Underground Railroad,’” Providence Journal, January 13, 1918

Rohrs, Richard. “’Where the great serpent of Slavery. . . basks himself all summer long’: Antebellum Newport and the South,” The New England Quarterly, vol XCIV (March 2021), 82-107

Rhode Island College. Interviews, Mrs. Florence West Ward, and program for 161st Anniversary of Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church with hand-written note, Providence, October 21, 1956, Gross, Carl Russell, “Manuscript B” (1971). Dr. Carl Russell Gross Collection. 2; Rhode Island College Special Collections, accessed March 25, 2021

Rhode Island Historical Society. MSS 9001-G, B-12, Gross.

Salitan, Lucille and Eve Lewis Perera, eds. Virtuous Lives: Four Quaker Sisters Remember Family Life, Abolitionism, and Women’s Suffrage. (New York: Continuum Publishing Co., 1994)

S.A.M.[Serena Ann Miller] Washington, George Thomas Downing: A Sketch of His Life and Times (Newport, R.I.: The Milne Printery, 1910)

“Sarah Harris Fayerweather,” in Hallie Quinn, ed., Homespun Heroines (Xenia, Ohio: The Aldrine Publishing Co., 1929), 25-27

Scott, Edward. “Speech by Edward Scott, Delivered at the Roger Williams Freewill Baptist Church, Providence, Rhode Island, 6 October 1857,” and annotation, in C. Peter Ripley, ed., The Black Abolitionist Papers, Volume 4, The United States, 1847-1858 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991, 366-370)

Siebert, Wilbur H. The Underground Railroad: From Slavery to Freedom. (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1898)

Smith Foster, Frances. Witnessing Slavery: The Development of the Ante-Bellum Slave Narratives. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994)

Snodgrass, Mary Ellen. The Underground Railroad—An Encyclopedia of People, Places, and Operations. 2 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe Inc., 2008

Stages of Freedom. On the Road to Freedom. Eliza Harris and George Fayerweather House (Kingston), Charles Perry House (Westerly), Pond Street Baptist Church (Providence), Isaac Rice homestead (Newport). Accessed June 4, 2021

Stevens, Elizabeth C. “A Symmetrical, Harmonious Substantial Character”: Schools for Abolitionist Children in Nineteenth-Century New England,” Schooldays in New England, 1650-1900, The Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife Annual Proceedings, June 19-21, 2015, 59-72

Stevens, Elizabeth C. Elizabeth Buffum Chace and Lillie Buffum Chace Wyman: A Century of Abolitionist, Suffragist and Workers’ Rights Activism. (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2003)

Stevens, Elizabeth C. “Mothering as a Subversive Activity in Nineteenth-Century Rhode Island,” Quaker History 84 (Spring 1995): 37-57

Still, William. The Underground Railroad, A Record of Facts, Authentic Narratives, Letters, &c. Narrating the Hardships, Hair-breadth Escapes and Death Struggles of the Slaves in Their Efforts for Freedom, as related by Themselves and Others, or Witnessed by the Author; Together With Sketches of Some of the Largest Stockholders, and Most Liberal Aiders and Advisers, of the Road. Published 1871. (Reprint, Chicago: Johnson Publishing Company Inc., 1970)

Stokes, Kieth, and Theresa Guzman Stokes. A Matter of Truth: The Struggle for African Heritage and Indigenous People Equal Rights in Providence, R.I.,1620-2020 (R.I. Black Heritage Society and 1696 Heritage Group, 2021)

The Underground Railroad in New England (American Revolution Bicentennial Administration) n.d.

Wijaya, May. “The World Was His Oyster; George T. Downing,” Rhode Tour. Accessed June 4, 2021

Youngken, Richard C. African-Americans in Newport: An Introduction to the Heritage of African Americans in Newport, R.I. (R.I. Historical Preservation Heritage Commission and R.I. Black Heritage Society, The Newport Historical Society, 1998)

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