Back to Chapter Index Back to Essay: Rhode Island, Slavery, and the Slave Trade


1730 Narrative of Slave Revolt on Ship off Africa, Harris Family Papers, MSS 17, Box 2, Rhode Island Historical Society.

Acts and Laws of the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Newport: Samuel Hall, 1767.

Andrews, Edward E. “The Crossings of Occramar Marycoo, or Newport Gardner.” In Atlantic Biographies: Individuals and Peoples in the Atlantic World. Boston: Brill, 2013.

Bamberg, Cherry Fletcher and Donald R. Hopkins, “The Slaves of Gov. Stephen Hopkins,” New England Historical and Genealogical Register 33 (January 20122): 11–27.

Bell, Robert. 1764. Invoice: Bell, Robert to Brown, John: Ca. August 1764. Comp. Brown Digital Repository. Brown University Library, August. Accessed June 2020.

Bartlett, John Russell, ed. Records of the Colony/State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Providence: A.C. Greene, 1856-1865.

Bartlett, Irving H. From Slave to Citizen: the Story of the Negro in Rhode Island. Providence: Urban League of Greater Providence, 1972.

Berlin, Ira. “Time, Space, and the Evolution of Afro-American Society on British Mainland North America.” The American Historical Review 85, no. 1 (February 1980): 44-78.

Berlin, Ira. Generations of Captivity: A History of African-American Slaves. Cambridge and London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003.

Bolster, W. Jeffrey, “To Feel Like A Man: Black Seamen in the Northern States,” The Journal of American History, Vol. 76, No. 4 (Mar., 1990), pp. 1173-1199.

Bolster, W. Jeffrey, Black Jacks: African American Seamen in the Age of Sail. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Bowen, Jabez. 1764. Invoice: Brown, Jabez Jr. to Nicholas Brown & Co.: September 8, 1764. Comp. Brown Digital Repository. Brown University Library, September 8. Accessed June 2020.

Brown, William J. The Life of William J. Brown. Providence, RI: Angell and Co. Printers, 1883.

Burnard, Trevor. “Slave Naming Patterns: Onomastics and Taxonomy of Race in Eighteenth-Century Jamaica.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History XXX1:3 (Winter 2001): 325-346.

Campbell, James T. 2007. Navigating the Past: Brown University and the Voyage of the Slave Ship Sally, 1764-65. Syracuse, NY: Imagining America.

Chernos-Lin, Rachel. “The Rhode Island Slave Traders: Butchers, Bakers and Candlestick-Makers.” Slavery & Abolition 23, no. 3 (December 2002): 21-38.

Christopher, Emma. Slave Ship Sailors and Their Captive Cargoes, 1730-1807. Boston: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Clark-Pujara, Christy. Dark Work: The Business of Slavery in Rhode Island. New York: New York University Press, 2016.

Clark-Pujara, Christy “In Need of Care: African American Families Transform the Providence Association for the Benefit of Colored Orphans during the Final Collapse of Slavery, 1839-1846,” Journal of Family History. September 12, 2019. 299-300.

Cottrol, Robert J. The Afro-Yankees: Providence’s Black Community in the Antebellum Era. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.

Coughtry, Jay. The Notorious Triangle: Rhode Island and the African Slave Trade 1700-1807. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981.

Donnan, Elizabeth. Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America. Vol. 1-3. (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institute of Washington, 1930.)

Dow, George Francis. Slave Ships and Slaving. Maryland: Cornell Maritime Press, 1968.

Era. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.

Fitts, Robert K. Inventing New England’s Slave Paradise: Master/Slave Relations in Eighteenth-Century Narragansett, Rhode Island. New York and London, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1998.

“From Messurado.” Richmond Enquirer. June 23, 1826.

Gardner, Newport. Letter to Samuel Vinson. January 2, 1826. Inventory ID 1946. Newport Historical Society.

Gardner, Newport. Letter to Mrs. Sarah Burk. October 16, 1821. 2012.3. Newport Historical Society.

Geake, Robert A., and Lorén M. Spears. From Slaves to Soldiers: The 1st Rhode Island Regiment in the American Revolution. Yardley, PA: Westholme Publishing, 2016.

Gibb, George. 1764. Invoice: George Gibb to Nicholas Brown: September 10, 1764. Comp. Brown Digital Repository. Brown University Library, September 10. Accessed June 2020.

Greene, Evarts B., and Virginia D. Harrington. American Population before the Federal Census of 1790. Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1966.

Greene, Lorenzo Johnston. The Negro in Colonial New England. New York: Atheneum, 1968.

Greenwood, Janette Thomas. First Fruits of Freedom: The Migration of Former Slaves and Their Search for Equality in Worcester, Massachusetts, 1862-1900. University of North Carolina Press, 2010.

Guzmán Stokes, Theresa. “Rhode Island African Heritage & History Timeline: 17th through 19th Centuries.” 1696 Heritage Group. Accessed July 24, 2020.

Harris, Robert L. “Early Black Benevolent Societies, 1780-1830.” The Massachusetts Review 20, no. 3 (1979): 603-25.

Heim, R.J. “New petition seeks to remove Providence Plantations from Rhode Island’s full name.” NBC News 10. June 10, 2020. Accessed October 8, 2020.

Herndon, Ruth Wallis, and Ella Wilcox Sekatau, “The Right to a Name: Narragansett People and Rhode Island Officials in the Revolutionary Era.” Ethnohistory 44, no. 3 (Summer 1997): 433-462. n.d. “Life Aboard a Slave Ship.” A&E Television Networks. Accessed June 2020.

“History.” Congdon Street Baptist Church. Accessed July 24, 2020.

Hopkins, Esek. 1765. Brig Sally’s Account Book: 1765. Comp. Brown Digital Repository. Brown University Library. Accessed April 2020.

Hopkins, Esek. 1764. Manifest of the Brig. Sally: September 11, 1764. Comp. Brown Digital Repository. Brown University, September 11. Accessed June 2020.

Howe, Jeffrey “Black and Indian Sailors Born in Rhode Island: Bristol Custom House Protection Papers,” Rhode Island Roots (June 2005): 91-98.

Howe, Jeffrey, “Black and Indian Sailors Born in Rhode Island: Providence Customs House Records, Part I: A-C,” Rhode Island Roots (September 2006): 156-163.

Howe, Jeffrey “Black and Indian Sailors Born in Rhode Island: Providence Customs House Records, Part II: D-J,” Rhode Island Roots (December 2006): 197-207.

Howe, Jeffrey, “Black and Indian Sailors Born in Rhode Island: Providence Customs House Records, Part III, K-Y,” Rhode Island Roots (March 2007), p. 97.

Howe, Jeffrey, “Black and Indian Sailors from Rhode Island: Bristol Crew Lists,” Rhode Island Roots (September 2005): 143-55.

Howe, Jeffrey, “Black and Indian Sailors Born in Rhode Island: New London, Connecticut, Protectorate Records,” Rhode Island Roots (December 2005): 196-200.

Ingraham, Samuel. 1764. Receipt: Ingraham, Samuel to John Brown: August 7, 1764. Comp. Brown Digital Repository. Brown University Library, August 7. Accessed June 2020.

John Carter Brown Library. n.d. Slavery and Justice: Selected Sources from the John Carter Brown Library. Accessed April 2020.

Johnson, Cynthia Mestad. “James DeWolf and the Rhode Island Slave Trade” History Press, 2014.

Lemons, J. Stanley. “Rhode Island and the Slave Trade.” Rhode Island History 60, no. 4 (Fall 2002): 90-104.

Log of Slave Ship Dolphin 1795-1797, Ship’s Log Collection, MSS 828, Box 12, Folder 2, Rhode Island Historical Society.

MacSparran, James. A Letter Book and Abstract of Out Services: Written during the Years 1743-1751. Boston: D. B. Updike, 1899.

Marcris, Gina. Strong ‘no’ to changing R.I. name. The Providence Journal, November 3, 2010.

Marques, Leonardo. The United States and the Transatlantic Slave Trade to the Americas, 1776-1867. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016.

Martin, C.J. ““Forever and Hereafter a Body Politic” The African Union Meeting House and Providence’s First Black Leaders,” Rhode Island History 77, No. 1 (2019).

Mason, George C. “Mason’s Newport” (G.C. Mason Extra illustrated Manuscript). Vol. 3. ca. 1740-1820.

McBurney, Christian. “Cato Pearce’s Memoir: A Rhode Island Slave Narrative.” Rhode Island History 67, no. 1 (2009).

McBurney, Christian M. The Rise and Decline of the South Kingstown Planters, 1660 – 1783. BA honors thesis, Brown University, 1981.

McBurney, Christian. “The South Kingstown Planters: Country Gentry in Colonial Rhode Island.” Rhode Island History 45:3 (August 1986).

Melish, Joanne Pope. Disowning Slavery: Gradual Emancipation and ‘Race’ in New England, 1780-1860). Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1998.

Miller, William Davis, and William Davis Miller. Dr. Joseph Torrey and His Record Book of Marriages. Vol. 15-18. Providence, RI: Rhode Island Historical Society Collections, 1922.

Mooney, Tom. “The state is changing. Will its name follow? The details of a 20-year debate over ‘and Providence Plantations.” Providence Journal. August 3, 2020. Accessed October 8, 2020.

Mumford, William. 1764. Receipt for 51 Loaves of Sugar: September 6, 1764. Comp. Brown Digital Repository. Brown University Library, September 6. Accessed June 2020.

Newell, Margaret Ellen. Brethren by Nature: New England Indians, Colonists, and the Origins of American Slavery. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2015.

Newell, Margaret Ellen. “The Changing Nature of Indian Slavery in New England, 1670-1720,” in Reinterpreting New England Indians and the Colonial Experience, edited by Collin Calloway and Neil Salisbury. Boston: Colonial Society of Massachusetts, 2003.

“Newport Gardner’s Life Story Comes Down the Years.” Providence Journal. May 20, 1936.

Piersen, William D. Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth-Century New England. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988.

Platt, Virginia Bever. “’And Don’t Forget the Guinea Voyage’: The Slave Trade of Aaron Lopez of Newport,” The William and Mary Quarterly Vol. 32, No. 4 (Oct., 1975), pp. 601-618.

Rediker, Marcus Buford. The Slave Ship a Human History. New York: Penguin Books, 2008.

Reidy, Joseph P. “Negro Election Day’ & Black Community Life in New England, 1750-1860.” Marxist Perspectives 8:3 [Fall, 1978] p. 102-117.

Reynolds, Daniel S. “Newport Gardner: The First African American Music Educator.” In Rhode Island’s Musical Heritage: An Exploration. Sterling Heights, MI: Harmonie Park Press, 2008.

Rhode Island Historical Society. n.d. Finding Aid for Obadiah Brown I (1712-1762) Papers. Accessed June 2020.

“Rhode Island Name Change Amendment, Question 1 (2010).” Ballotpedia.,_Question_1_(2010).

Robinson, William H., “The Proceedings of the Free African Union Society and the African Benevolent Society: Newport, Rhode Island 1780-1824” (1976). Faculty Publications. 407.

Scott, Kenneth. “George Scott, Slave Trader of Newport”. American Neptune, Vol. 12, No. 3, July 1952. (Salem, M.A.: American Neptune Incorporated, 1952.)

Sherer, Robert Glenn, Jr. “Negro Churches in Rhode Island before 1860,” Rhode Island History 25, No.9, January 1966.

Stokes, Keith. “A Place for All.” Newport Daily News (Newport), 2014. Accessed July 27, 2020.

Streich, Catherine. “Op/Ed: The State of Rhode Island and Problematic Plantations.” East Greenwich News. June 18, 2020. Accessed October 8, 2020.

“Summary.” Richmond Enquirer. January 14, 1826.

Sweet, John Wood. Bodies Politic: Negotiating Race in the American North, 1730-1830. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2003.

Sweet, John Wood. “More Than Tears: The Ordeal of Abolition in Revolutionary New England,” Explorations in Early American Culture Vol. 5 (2001), pp. 118-172.

Taylor, Eric Robert. If We Must Die: Shipboard Insurrections in the Era of the Atlantic Slave Trade. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2009.

Thomas, Hugh. The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440-1870. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade – Database.

University Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice. 2007. Slavery and Justice. Brown University, Providence: Brown University. Accessed April 2020.

Wade, Melvin. “’Shining in Borrowed Plumage:’ Affirmation of Community in the Black Coronation Festivals of New England (c. 1750-c. 1850).” Western Folklore 40:3 (July 1981): 211-231.

White, Shane. “It Was a Proud Day: African Americans, Festivals, and Parades in the North, 1741-1834.” The Journal of American History 81, No. 1 (1994): 46.

White, Shane. Somewhat More Independent: the End of Slavery in New York City, 1770-1810. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 2014.

Zilian, Fred. “British and Hessian Forces Occupy Newport and Aquidneck Island in 1776.” April 7, 2017. Accessed July 30, 2020.

Zilversmit, Arthur. The First Emancipation: The Abolition of Slavery in the North. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1967.

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